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善禁者

-- 摘自《申鉴:政体第一》

作者 (东汉)荀悦

善禁者,先禁其身而后人。不善禁者,先禁人而后身。善禁而至于不禁,令亦如之。若乃肆情于身,而绳欲于众。行诈于官,而矜实于民。求己之所有余,夺下之所不足。舍己之所易,责人之所难。怨之本也。

He Who Is Good at Banning

东山 译

He who is good at banning complies with the interdicts himself first. He who is not good at banning requires others to observe the prohibitions first and himself second. The best banning is no law necessary to ban. Decrees are the same. If the Imperial Court indulges in sensuous pleasures, but depresses the desires of the common people; if the officials are cheating and deceiving while demanding the rank and file to be honest; if the rich accumulates more than they need while robbing the poor of the little to live with; if you fail to do what is easy, but coerce others to accomplish the impossible,   all these will be the roots and causes of resentments and animosity.

-- by Xun Yue (East Han Dynasty)   

【注】《申鉴》中国东汉末思想家荀悦的政治、哲学论著。《后汉书》本传说,荀悦志在匡辅献帝,因曹操揽政,“谋无所用,乃作《申鉴》”。意为重申历史经验,供皇帝借鉴。全书5卷,包括《政体》、《时事》、《俗嫌》《杂言上》、《杂言下》 5篇。

Xunyue-2.jpg【作者简介】荀悦(148-209),字仲豫,河南许昌人。《后汉书》说他:「年十二,能说春秋」。汉灵帝时宦官当道,有志节的知识分子都隐居了,荀悦也隐居起来。汉献帝时,曹操当政,荀悦和他从弟苟或,还有孔融等「侍讲禁中,旦夕谈论」。虽想施展抱负,但谋无所用,乃做《申鉴》五篇。其思想主旨,一方面是反对迷信惑众,一方面是反对土地私有,他对刑罚的立论,是主张「统法」,提出「罚妄行,则恶不惩」说法,不失为一种进步的法律观念。

 

(原载《海外南开人》79期, 03/23/2014)

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