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民者,国之根本也


民者,国之根本也。 天下虽乱,民心未离,不足忧也。 天下虽治,民心离,可忧也。 有民则有天下,有国家; 无民,则天下空虚矣。 空虚不可居, 名号不足守,然则民其与天下存亡乎!其与国家衰盛乎!自古四夷不能亡国,大臣不能亡国,唯民能亡国。民, 国之根本也。 未有根本亡而枝叶存者。-- (宋)石介 《根本》


The People Are Fundamental

东山 译


The people are fundamental for a country. If the people are one-minded with Your Majesty,  even though the country is in a chaos, Your Majesty don’t have to worry much.   What needs to worry is when the country looks in good order but the people are janus-faced with you.

Whoever wins people’s hearts wins the land under heaven and can rule the country. Otherwise, the country is only a hollow void. A country like this will not last for long. A name-only country is not worth defending. Isn’t it obvious that it is the people who decide the rise and fall of the country? Isn’t it obvious that the people can make the country thrive or decline?

From ancient times to date we can see that foreign powers could not subjugate our nation, nor could rebellious ministers ruin the country, but the people could. The People are the foundation of a country, just as a tree cannot survive without the roots.

-- Shi Jie (Song Dynasty) : 《Fundamentals>
1【作者简介】:石介(1005年-1045年),字守道,北宋兗州奉符(今山東泰安縣東南)人。師從於孫復,讀書於徂徠山(泰安城東南),世稱徂徠先生。著有《徂徠先生全集》、《怪說》。天聖八年(1030年)進士,與歐陽修、蔡襄等同年登科。 歷任鄆州觀察推官、南京留守推官等職。因好議時政,作《慶曆聖德頌》,斥權臣夏竦為“大奸”,夏竦恨他恨得牙癢癢的。後自求外放通判濮州,末赴任而卒。夏竦推說石介詐死,請開棺驗證。杜衍、呂居簡等數百人保證石介已死,乃免除此難,但累及妻子。歐陽修說他的文章“博辯雄偉,懮思深遠”。石介推崇韓愈的「道統論」,稱堯、舜、禹、文、武、周、孔之道,才是“三才九疇五常之道”。

 

 

(原载《海外南开人》78期, 02/2014)

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